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Normal & Reference Values, Diagnostic Ranges

 

Transthoracic
go to: Transesophageal


Normal Values
Data Origin: 43 normal subjects, age 42±13 yeas (range: 20-74 years), body surface area: 1.8±0.2 m2,  mean arterial pressure: 94±9 mmHg, mean heart rate: 70±10 bpm (range: 52-93).   
M-Mode Examination, Left ventricle  [Mean±SD]  
End-diastolic diameter 49±4 mm  

End-sys tolic diameter

30±5 mm
Fibre fractional shortening 38±6   %
Interventricular septum thickness 9±1 mm
Septal systolic thickening 51±19 %
Postero-lateral wall thickness 8±1 mm
Wall systolic thickening 94±30 %
Hypertrophy index 0.34±0.05
Mass index  91±20 g/ m2 
End-systolic meridional wall stress 56±17 103 dynes/cm2 


2D Exam, left ventricle  [Mean±SD]
  4-Chambers 2-Chambers Biplane
End-diastolic volume (monoplane area/length, Dodge correction) 91±21 ml 102±18 ml 95±18 ml
End-diastolic volume index      55±9 ml/m2
End-systolic volume 38±11 ml 41±14 ml 39±11   ml

End-systolic volume index

 
23±6  ml/m2
Ejection fraction 58±7 %   59± 7  
Stroke volume      56±14 ml
Stroke volume index     32±7 mlm2
Cardiac output      3.8±0.9  lt
Cardiac index     2.2±0.5 lt/m2
Mitral anulus, end-systole 2.5±0.5 cm     

 

2D Exam, left atrium [Mean±SD]
  4-Chambers 2-Chambers Biplane
Supero-inferior axis, end-systole
(= 1 frame before mitral valve opening)
4.7±0.5 cm    
Transverse axis, end-systole
3.9±0.5 cm    
End-systolic area 19±3 cm2    
End-systolic volume (area/length) 58±17 ml     
End-diastolic area (end of ECG P wave) 14±4 cm2    
End-diastolic volume 37±15 ml    
Minimum area
(1 frame before atrial expansion)
10±3 cm2    
Minimum volume 21±10 ml    
       


Diagnostic & Parameter Ranges for the Report
Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction [Modified Simpson Formula]

Normal 
Mildly reduced

Moderately reduced  
Severely reduced
 

55 – 65 %  
45 – 55 %  
35 – 45 %  
< 35 %
Aortic Valve Stenosis:  
Grade  
Mild  
Moderate  

Severe 
Mean Gradient(mmHg) - Estimated Area (cm2)  
  < 20                                          > 1.4  
20 – 50                                     0.8 – 1.4  
  > 50                                          < 0.8  
Mitral Valve Stenosis:  
Grade  
Mild  
Moderate  

Severe
 
Mean Gradient (mmHg) - Estimated Area (cm2)  
  < 6                                               > 1.5  
6 – 16                                           1 – 1.5  
  > 16                                               <  1
Wall Motion (16 segments model) and Scoring:  
Walls
A     Anterior
AL   Antero-lateral
SA  Anterior septum
I      Infero-Posterior
SI    Inferior septum
PL   Postero-Lateral

Asynergy index
Percent dyssynergy

Asynergy Score
0   Not visualized
1   Normokinesis
2   Hypokinesis
3   Akinesis
4   Diskinesis
5   Aneurysm

Sum of all scores / number of  visualized segments
Number of abnormal segments / number of  visualized segments 

Pericardial Effusion: 
Mild
Moderate
Severe
< 1 cm separation    =  300 ml
1-2 cm separation    =  500 ml
> 2 cm  separation    > 700 ml
Exam Quality:  
Good   
Sufficient   
Poor  
Inadequate
 
Complete analysis of all parameters
Acceptable analysis of all parameters
Analysis limited to a few parameters
Incomplete study

 

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Web site created/ sito creato:    August 1999
Updated / aggiornato:      28/02/2012
Suggestions & criticisms,  email:
pbar@iol.it
Copyright © 1999-2012 by Paolo Barbier

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