Left ventricular geomety

<< Back LV mass (area/length) (2D)
1.05 x ([5/6 x A1 x (a + d + t)] - [5/6 x A2 x (a + d)])   (gm)
 

  LV mass (truncated ellipsoid) (2D)
1.05
p {(b + t)2 x [2/3 x (a + t) + d - [d3 / 3 x (a + t)2]] - b2 x [2/3 a + d - (d3 / 3 x a2)]}   (gm)
(Schiller et al, 1989)

A
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B
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Left ventricular hypertrophy index (M-mode)
h/r
= [(PWTd + IVSTd) /2] / (EDD / 2)
(Reicheck et al., 1982)
Normal range: 0.33 - 0.41

Left ventricular mass index (M-mode)
LVMI
= (1.05 x [(EDD + PWTd + IVSTd)3 - EDD3] - 13.6) / BSA  (g/m2)
(Devereux et al., 1977)
Normal values

Left ventricular geometry pattern in hypertrophy
Concentric remodeling
     - LVMI <= 50 gm/m2; h/r >= 0.44
Normal
     - LVMI <= 50 gm/m2; h/r < 0.44
Concentric hypertrophy
     - LVMI > 50 gm/m2; h/r >= 0.44
Eccentric hypertrophy
     - LVMI > 50 gm/m2; h/r < 0.44

Spherical index (2D)
EDV / [(LAD3 x p) / 6]
(Kono et al., 1991) - (Lamas et al, 1989)

Long/short axis ratio (2D)
Long axis / Short axis
(Kono et al., 1991)

 

 

A. Transthoracic parasternal short axis view

Red: tracing of pericardial border to obtain A1
Green
: tracing of endocardial border (papillary muscles are excluded) to obtain A2
Am = A1 - A2 = area of myocardium
t
: myocardial thickness (automatically calculated by the software)

LV mass index (truncated ellipsoid) normal values:
Males: 7613    gm/m2
Females: 6611    gm/m2 
(Helak et al, 1981)

 

 

 

 

 

B. Transthoracic subcostal 4-chamber view

a: semi-major axis from widest minor axis radius (b) to apex 
b: short axis radius
d:truncated semi-major axis from widest minor axis radius (b) to mitral anulus plane.  

LA: left atrium
RA: right atrium
RV: right ventricle

 

 

 

BSA: body surface area (m2)
EDD
: LV end-diastolic diameter (cm)
ESD: LV end-systolic diameter (cm)
IVSTd: Interventricular diastolic thickness (cm)
PWTd: LV postero-lateral diastolic wall thickness (cm)
PWTs: LV postero-lateral systolic wall thickness (cm)
SAP: systolic arterial pressure (mmHg)



 

 

EDV: End-diastolic volume, ml
LAD: Long axis, cm


 

Web site created/ sito creato:    August 1999
Updated / aggiornato:      28/02/2012
Suggestions & criticisms,  email:
pbar@iol.it
Copyright 1999-2012 by Paolo Barbier

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